A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
ingress
An entrance, or the act of entering. Compare egress.
inherit
To receive property from someone who has died. Traditionally, the word "inherit" applied only when one received property from a relative who died without a will. Currently, however, the word is used whenever someone receives property from the estate of a deceased person.
inheritance taxes
Taxes some states impose on people or organizations who inherit property from a deceased person's estate. The taxes are based on the value of the inherited property.
inheritors
Persons or organizations who receive property from someone who dies.
injunction
A court decision that is intended to prevent harm--often irreparable harm--as distinguished from most court decisions, which are designed to provide a remedy for harm that has already occurred. Injunctions are orders that one side refrain from or stop certain actions, such as an order that an abusive spouse stay away from the other spouse or that a logging company not cut down first-growth trees. Injunctions can be temporary, pending a consideration of the issue later at trial (these are called interlocutory decrees or preliminary injunctions). Judges can also issue permanent injunctions at the end of trials, in which a party may be permanently prohibited from engaging in some conduct--for example, infringing a copyright or trademark or making use of illegally obtained trade secrets. Although most injunctions order a party not to do something, occasionally a court will issue a "mandatory injunction" to order a party to carry out a positive act--for example, return stolen computer code.
injunctive relief
A situation in which a court grants an order, called an injunction, telling a party to refrain from doing something--or in the case of a mandatory injunction, to carry out a particular action. Usually injunctive relief is granted only after a hearing at which both sides have an opportunity to present testimony and legal arguments.
inlining
The act of displaying a graphic file from another company's website. For example, inlining occurs if a user at site A can, without leaving site A, view a "cartoon of the day" featured on site B.
INS
See Immigration and Naturalization Service.
insanity
See criminal insanity.
intangible property
Personal property that has no physical existence, such as stocks, bonds, bank notes, trade secrets, patents, copyrights and trademarks. Such "untouchable" items may be represented by a certificate or license that fixes or approximates the value, but others (such as the goodwill or reputation of a business) are not easily valued or embodied in any instrument. Compare tangible property.
integrated pension plan
A pension plan that is integrated with Social Security retirement benefits. In such plans, the monthly or yearly pension benefit is reduced by all, or some percentage of, the retiree's Social Security check--although since 1988, the law has required that the plan leave at least half of the pension amount. These integrated plans work in one of two ways, either establishing a benefit goal for combined Social Security and pension benefits, or reducing your pension by a set percentage of your Social Security benefits.
intellectual property (IP) law
The area of law that regulates the ownership and use of creative works, including patent, copyright and trademark law.
intent-to-use application
A term used in trademark law. The Lanham Act permits a mark not yet used in commerce to be reserved for later registration by filing an intent-to-use application with the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office (PTO). The initial reservation lasts for six months and can be extended for up to five additional six-month periods (for a total of 3 years) for good cause.
intentional tort
A deliberate act that causes harm to another, for which the victim may sue the wrongdoer for damages. Acts of domestic violence, such as assault and battery, are intentional torts (as well as crimes).
inter vivos trust
The Latin name, favored by some lawyers, for a living trust. "Inter vivos" is Latin for "between the living."